Conference Proceedings

Citation Information:

Renard, Kenneth G., McElroy, Stephen A., Gburek, William J., Canfield,
H. Evan and Scott, Russell L., eds. 2003. First Interagency Conference
on Research in the Watersheds, October 27-30, 2003.  U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.

This report comprises abstracts and papers presented at the First
Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, October 27-30,
2003, Benson, Arizona.  This report represents state-of-the-art research
in watersheds.  The content includes reviews of watershed research
programs conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural
Research Service and Forest Service, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Bureau
of Land Management, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and National
Science Foundation Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of
Hydrological Sciences, Inc., as well as recent research on
watershed-scale topics such as hydrology, erosion, economic,
instrumentation, ecology, sociology and fire.

Keywords: watershed, watershed management, hydrology, water quality,
water quantity, runoff, sediment loss, sediment transport, sociology,
ecology, ecosystem, erosion, economics, instrumentation


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Preface and Acknowledgements


Overview of Agency Watershed Research Programs

The USDA-Agricultural Research Service Watershed Research Program

            Mark A. Weltz, Dale A. Bucks

Watershed Research and Development in the USDA Forest Service

            Douglas F. Ryan

Watershed Research in the Bureau of Land Management

            Daniel P. Muller

The CUAHSI Plan for a Network of Hydrologic Observatories

Lawrence Band, Marshall Moss, Fred Ogden

An Overview of the Strategic Content of EPA’s Watershed Research Program

            Lee A. Mulkey, Thomas O. Barnwell, Steven Hedtke, Rochelle Arraujo, Michael Slimak

Overview of the Water, Energy, Biogeochemical Budgets Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

            Mary Jo Baedecker


Technology and Watershed Planning

Watershed Planning with the Facilitator Decision Support System

            Philip Heilman, Paul Lawrence

An Examination of the Use of Information and Communication Technologies by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

            Michele Masucci

Application of BASINS for Water Quality Assessment on the Mill Creek Watershed in Louisiana

            Kansheng Wu, Y. Jun Xu, W.E. Kelso, D.A. Rutherford

The San Pedro River Spatial Data Archive: A Database Browser for Community-Based Environmental  Protection

            William G. Kepner, Darius J. Semmens, Daniel T. Heggem, Edward J. Evanson,

            Curtis M. Edmonds, Soren N. Scott

Indicators for Assessing Watershed Conditions

            B. McQuaid, S. Aschmann, C. Seybold, G. Spiller

Using Science to Support Management Decisions in Waquoit Bay, MA

            Victor B. Serveiss, Jennifer L. Bowen, David Dow, Ivan Valiela, Leela Rao


Experimental Watersheds

The USDA ARS Little Washita River Experimental Watershed

            Michael W. Van Liew, Patrick J. Starks, John A. Daniel, Jean L. Steiner

Hydrologic Instrumentation at the USDA-ARS Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Riesel, TX

            R. Daren Harmel, Clarence W. Richardson, Kevin W. King, Jeff G. Arnold

Information Technology Applications in the ARS Watershed Network
J.L. Steiner, D.C. Goodrich, S. Hardegree, M.R. Burkhart, T.C. Strickland, M.A. Weltz

The USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory and Little River Experimental Watersheds

            Joe Sheridan, David Bosch, Robert Hubbard, Richard Lowrance, Tom Potter,

            Tim Strickland, Clint Truman, Don Wauchope


Erosion I

Incorporating Bank-Toe Erosion by Hydraulic Shear into a Bank-Stability Model: Missouri River, Eastern Montana

            Andrew Simon, Eddy J. Langendoen, Robert Thomas

Effects of Forest Management on Streamflow, Sediment Yield, and Erosion, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds

            Elizabeth Keppeler, Jack Lewis, Thomas Lisle

Variable Rainfall Intensity Rainfall Simulator Experiments on Semi-arid Rangelands

            Jeffry Stone, Ginger Paige

Methodology for Determining Effects of Extent and Geometry of Impervious Surface on Hydrologic Balance

            Elizabeth Warnemuende, William Shuster, Doug Smith, James Bonta

U.S. Geological Survey Research on Surrogate Measurements for Suspended Sediment

            John R. Gray, Theodore S. Melis, Eduardo Patiño, Matthew C. Larsen, David J. Topping,

            Patrick P. Rasmussen, Carlos Figueroa-Alamo

Monitoring and Modelling Runoff in Semi-arid Areas from the Hillslope to the Watershed Scale

            Richard Brazier, John Wainwright, Tony Parsons, D. Mark Powell, Roger Simanton,

            Howard Larsen

The Soil and Water Quality Link – Using Composted Products for Effective Stormwater Management

            Rodney W. Tyler


Hydrology I

Multiple Approaches to Estimate Ephemeral Channel Recharge

            D.C. Goodrich, D.G. Williams, C.L. Unkrich, R.L. Scott, K.R. Hultine, D. Pool,

            A. Coes, J. Hogan

Monitoring Water Content Changes in the Root Zone with Borehole Ground Penetrating Radar

            Ty P.A. Ferre, D.R. Rucker, G. von Glinski

Importance of Wetlands to Streamflow Generation

            E.S. Verry, R.K. Kolka

Streamflow Response of an Agricultural Watershed to Seasonal Changes in Precipitation

            Michael W. Van Liew, Jeanne M. Schneider, Jurgen D. Garbrecht

Stochastic Daily Rainfall Generation in Southeast Arizona: An Example from Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed

            Huey-hong Hsieh, Jeffry Stone, D. Phillip Guertin,  Donald D. Slack

Estimation of Ephemeral Streamflow Duration Using Temperature Methods in the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Arizona

            Bruce Gungle

Hydrologic Characteristics of the Little River Experimental Watershed

            David Bosch, Joe Sheridan, Randy Williams


Erosion II

Comparison of the USLE, RUSLE1.06c, and RUSLE2 for Application to Highly Disturbed Lands

            George R. Foster, Terrence E. Toy, Kenneth G. Renard

Sediment Yield from Semiarid Watersheds

M. H. Nichols, K. G. Renard

Tracking Erosion and Sediment Re-distribution in a Small Watershed

Mark A. Nearing, Viktor Polyakov, Martin Shipitalo

Experimental Drainage Basins in Israel: Rainfall, Runoff, Suspended Sediment and Bedload Monitoring

Jonathan Laronne, Judith Lekach, Hai Cohen, Yulia Alexandrov

The Use of Used Tires in Water Systems

           Stuart A. Hoenig

Effect of Peak Flow Increases on Sediment Transport Regimes Following Timber Harvest, Western Cascades, Oregon

Gordon Grant, Shannon Hayes, Sarah Lewis

Stream-bed Scour and Fill in Low-order Ephemeral Stream Channels

D. Mark Powell, R. Brazier, M. Nichols, J. Wainwright, A. Parsons


Hydrology II

Infiltration and Runoff: Point and Plot Scale

            Ginger Paige, Jeffry Stone

Watershed-Scale Sensing of Subsurface Flow Pathways at the OPE3 Site

            T.J. Gish, C.L. Walthall, C.S.T. Daughtry, G.W. McCarty, W.P. Dulaney

The Challenges of Measuring Rainfall: Observations Made at the Goodwin Creek Research Watershed

            Lisa Sieck, Matthias Steiner, Stephen Burges, James Smith, Carlos Alonso

Estimation of Watershed Scale Soil Moisture from Point Measurements During SMEX02

            Michael H. Cosh, Thomas J. Jackson, Rajat Bindlish, John H. Prueger

Monitoring Rangeland Watersheds With Very-Large Scale Aerial Imagery

            D. Terrance Booth, Don Glenn, Bruce Keating, Joe Nance, Sam E. Cox, Jean P. Barriere

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Water Quality Parameters for Large Rivers in the Ohio River Basin

            Naseer A. Shafique, Florence Fulk, Bradley C. Autrey, Joseph Flotemersch

A GIS-based Management Tool to Quantify Riparian Vegetation Groundwater Use

            Russell L. Scott, David C. Goodrich, Lainie R. Levick


Watershed Modeling I

Estimating Channel Morphologic Properties from a High Resolution DEM

            Scott N. Miller

Multi-Scale Evaluation of Watershed Health in the Delaware River Basin and CEMRI

            Kenneth Stolte, Peter Murdoch, Jennifer Jenkins, Richard Birdsey, Richard Evans

Process Representation in Watershed-scale Hydrologic Models: An Evaluation in an Experimental Watershed

            T.L. Veith, M.S. Srinivasan, W.J. Gburek

A Blueprint for an Integrated Watershed Hydrogeomorphic Modeling System

            Enrique R. Vivoni, Erkan Istanbulluoglu, Rafael L. Bras

Recent Progress in the Development of a SPARROW Model of Sediment for the Conterminous U.S.

            Gregory Schwarz, Richard Smith, Richard Alexander, John Gray

Soil Water Dynamics Studies Using Image Analysis

            Guillermo González Cervantes, Ignacio Sánchez-Cohen, Jean Pierre Rossignol

Modeling Phosphorus Transport in the Blue River Watershed, Summit County, Colorado

            Paula Jo Lemonds, John E. McCray


Watershed Networks and Data Management I

Long-Term Forest Hydrologic Monitoring in Coastal Carolinas

D.M. Amatya, G. Sun, C.C. Trettin, R.W. Skaggs

Forest Service Watershed Research in the Southwest

Daniel G. Neary, Gerald J. Gottfried, Peter F. Ffolliott, Leonard F. DeBano,

Malchus B. Baker, Jr

A Proposed International Watershed Research Network

W.R. Osterkamp, J.R. Gray

History of Small Watershed Research in Non-Forested Watersheds in Arizona and New Mexico

K.G. Renard, M.H. Nichols

Historical and Current Hydrological Research at the USDA/ARS Jornada Experimental Range in Southern New Mexico

            Albert Rango, Keirith Snyder, Jeff Herrick, Kris Havstad, Robert Gibbens,

            John Wainwright, Tony Parsons

StreamStats: A U.S. Geological Survey Web Site for Stream Information

Kernell G. Ries III, John R. Gray


Watershed Modeling II

Assessment of Two Physically-Based Watershed Models Based on Their Performances of Simulating Water and Sediment Movement

            Latif Kalin, Mohamed M. Hantush

Past and Prospective Effects of N Deposition on Carbon Cycling and Nutrient Retention in the Delaware River Basin

            Yude Pan, John Hom, Kevin McCullough

Entropy-Based Assessment of Two Hydrologic Models

            Mariano Hernandez, David C. Goodrich, Leonard J. Lane

Modeling Uncertainty of Runoff and Sediment Yield Using a Distributed Hydrologic Model

            Mohamed M. Hantush, Latif Kalin

Relations between Hydrology and Solute Fluxes at the Five Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budget (WEBB) Watersheds of the United States Geological Survey

            Richard M.T. Webb, Norman J. Peters, Brent T. Aulenbach, James B. Shanley

Operational Modeling of Soil Moisture at Local and Regional Scales

Christa Peters-Lidard, Yihua Wu, Mike Tischler, Peggy O’Neill

Modeling the Potential Effects of Forest Management and Climate Change on Water Yield Across the Southeastern U.S.

Ge Sun, Steven G. McNulty, Jennifer Moore

Water Quality and Quantity I

Quantification of Urbanization in Experimental Watersheds

            James Bonta, William Shuster, Elizabeth Warnemuende, Hale Thurston, Doug Smith,

            Michael Goss, Heriberto Cabezas

Water Supply and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

James J. Comiskey

Spatiotemporal Assessment of Long-Term Stream Water Chemistry Across Louisiana

Y. Jun Xu

Seasonal Variations in River Flow and Nutrient Concentrations in a Northwestern USA Watershed

            Anne Sigleo, Walter Frick

Modulating Storm Drain Flows to Reduce Stream Pollutant Concentrations

Walter Frick, Debra Denton

Nutrient and Herbicide Movement in Streamflow from Two Midwestern Watersheds

Gene Alberts, Dan Jaynes, Robert Lerch

Fifty Years of Watershed Research on the Fernow Experimental Forest, WV: Effects of Forest Management and Air Pollution in Hardwood Forests

M.B. Adams, P.J. Edwards, J.N. Kochenderfer, F. Wood


Integrating Science with Watershed Decision Making I

Calculating the Cost of Reducing Erosion from a Small Rangeland Watershed

            Philip Heilman, Yanxin Duan, Ryan Miller, D. Phillip Guertin

Spatial Decision Support System for Identifying Priority Sites for Watershed Management Schemes

Jagarlapudi Adinarayana

Management of Upper Lake Watershed

            Pradip Kumar Nandi

Watershed Management – Policies and Practices in a Humid Tropical Region

            K. Shadananan Nair


Erosion III

Soil Contributions to Sediment Properties in Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed: Influence of Slope Factors

            F.E. Rhoton, W.E. Emmerich, D.C. Goodrich, D.S. McChesney, S. Miller

Suspended-Sediment-Transport Rates at the 1.5-Year Recurrence Interval for Ecoregions of the United States: Transport Conditions at the Bankfull and Effective Discharge

Andrew Simon

Impact of Grass Hedges on Sediment Yield from a HEL Watershed

            Gene Alberts, Fessehaie Ghidey, Larry Kramer

Simulating Channel Geomorphic Change in Semi-Arid Watersheds

            Darius J. Semmens, David C. Goodrich, Waite R. Osterkamp

Subsurface Flow Effects on Soil Erosion in Watersheds

            Mathias Römkens, Shyam N. Prasad


Watershed Modeling III

Influence of Sub-grid Variability on Snow Deposition and Ablation in North American Mountain Environments: Implications for Upscaling to Meso-scale Representations

            Danny Marks, Gerald Flerchinger, Mark Seyfried

Studies of Scale and Processes in Hydrologic Modeling on the Lucky Hills Watershed

H. Evan Canfield, David C. Goodrich

Rangeland Ecological and Physical Modeling in a Spatial Context

S.M. Skirvin, M.S. Moran

Combined Geomorphic and Numerical-Modeling Analyses of Sediment Loads for Developing Water-Quality Targets for Sediment

            A. Simon, R.L. Bingner, E.J. Langendoen, R.R. Wells, C.V. Alonso

Integrating a Landscape/Hydrologic Analysis for Watershed Assessment

            Mariano Hernandez, William G. Kepner, Darius J. Semmens, Donald W. Ebert,

            David C. Goodrich, Scott N. Miller


Hydrology III

Exchange of Water, Solutes, and Nutrients at the Sediment-Water Interface Affects a Northern Minnesota Watershed at Multiple Scales

D.O. Rosenberry, W.E. Dean, J.H. Duff, J.W. LaBaugh, M.M. Reddy, P.S. Schuster,

R.G. Striegl, F.J. Triska, T.C. Winter

Hydrogeology of the Alluvial Aquifer Along the Curtiss Reach of the San Pedro River

Leo S. Leonhart, Eric M. Roudebush, Michael R. Long, Beth Ann Scully,

Betsy A. Semmens

Analysis of Long-Term Precipitation for the Central Texas Blackland Prairie: 1939 to 1999

R. Daren Harmel, Kevin W. King, Clarence W. Richardson, Jimmy R. Williams,

Jeff G. Arnold

Multi-Watershed Evaluation of WSR-88D (NEXRAD) Radar-Precipitation Products

Stuart Hardegree, Steven Van Vactor, Kathleen Healy, Carlos Alonso, James Bonta,

David Bosch, Dwight Fisher, Dave Goodrich, Daren Harmel, Jean Steiner, Michael Van Liew

Substrate and Dendrochronologic Streamflow Reconstruction

David E. Grow

Long-Term Rainfall and Runoff Characteristics of a Small Southern Piedmont Watershed

Dinku Endale, Dwight Fisher, Jean Steiner

Evaluation of Dielectric Constant-Based Soil Moisture Sensors in a Semiarid Rangeland

            Jeffrey Kennedy, Tim Keefer, Ginger Paige, Frank Bårnes

An ARS Retiree Looks at USDA Water Resource Programs

            Kenneth G. Renard

Modeling Hydrologic Variables and Terrain Features for Strategically Locating Riparian Buffers

            Michael Burkart, Mark D. Tomer, David E. James, Thomas M. Isenhart


Hydrology IV (Remote Sensing and GIS)

Estimating Regional Daytime Net Carbon Dioxide Flux using Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Measurements

Chandra D. Holifield, William E. Emmerich, M. Susan Moran, Ross Bryant,

Charmaine L. Verdugo

Inferring Root Zone Soil Water Content by Assimilating Remotely Sensed Data into a Soil Water Model

Patrick J. Starks, Thomas J. Jackson

Evaluation of Hyperspectral, Infrared Temperature and Radar Measurements for Monitoring Surface Soil Moisture

Ross Bryant, David Thoma, Susan Moran, Chandra Holifield, David Goodrich,

Tim Keefer, Ginger Paige, David Williams and Susan Skirvin

Monitoring Climate and Weather Variability in Mississippi

            Carlos V. Alonso, John A. Augustine, Tilden Meyers, Garry L. Schaefer, Loren White


Ecology I

The Effects of Ecosystem Restoration on Nitrogen Processing in an Urban Mid-Atlantic Piedmont Stream

            Paul Mayer, Elise Striz, Robert Shedlock, Edward Doheny, Peter Groffman

Vegetation Community Impacts on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen and Trace Gas Fluxes

            Dean A. Martens, Jean E. T. McLain

Influences of Alluvial Fans on Upland Watersheds in Central Nevada

            John L. Korfmacher, Jeanne C. Chambers

Carbon Dioxide Fluxes on Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed

William Emmerich


Watershed Networks and Data Management II

Hydrologic Data Processing Technology at the Southwest Watershed Research Center - Past, Present and Future

            Carl Unkrich

Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) Database Support

            H. Dale Fox, Scott N. Miller

Turbidity Threshold Sampling in Watershed Research

Rand Eads, Jack Lewis

Use of the ARS Watershed Network for Developing and Validating Models

            Jeffrey G. Arnold, R. Daren Harmel, Clarence W. Richardson

Distribution and Application of Research Watershed Data

            Mark S. Seyfried

Merging Hydrology and Water Quality – The Mahantango Creek Watershed

            W.J. Gburek, A.N. Sharpley, M.S. Srinivasan, P.J. Kleinman, T.L. Veith, P.A. Vadas,

            R.B. Bryant, W.L. Stout, C.J. Dell

Remote Sensing in Watershed Scale Hydrology

Walter J. Rawls, William P. Kustas, Thomas J. Schmugge, Jerry C. Ritchie,

Thomas J. Jackson, Al Rango, Paul Doraiswamy

New Patented Technology to Protect and Improve Water Quality in Lakes

            Raymond Bauer


Water Quality and Quantity II

Herbicide Contamination and Transport in Northern Missouri and Southern Iowa Streams

            Robert N. Lerch, Paul E. Blanchard

A Derived-Distribution Approach to Estimating Daily Loads of Sediment in Coastal Plain Streamflow

Robert Hubbard, Joseph Sheridan, David Bosch

Long-Term Effects of N Fertilizer on Groundwater in Two Small Watersheds

            M.D. Tomer, M.R. Burkart

A Study on Nitrogen Emission from Agricultural Lands and Eutrophication on Nearby Surface Waterbody as an Impact

            Mohammed Hossain, Omar Faruk, Waji Ullah, Ahmadul Hassan

Runoff and Sediment Losses from Annual and Unusual Storm Events from the Alto Experimental Watersheds, Texas: 23 Years after Silvicultural Treatments

            Matthew McBroom, R. Scott Beasley, Mingteh Chang, Brian Gowin, George Ice

Sources and Estimated Load of Bioavailable Nitrogen Attributable to Chronic Nitrogen Exposure and Changed Ecosystem Structure and Function

            Eric E. Jorgensen, Scott M. Holub, Gunadasa Silva, Paul M. Mayer, Ann E. West,

            Mary E. Gonsoulin, Susan J. Tunnell, Jay E. Clark, Jennifer L. Parsons,

            David M. Engle, Eric C. Hellgren

Reaching Communities Across Arizona with Water Education

D. Phillip Guertin, Kim McReynolds, Susan Pater, Jeff Schalau, Kerry Schwartz,

Sandra Sutton, Susan Ward, Deborah J. Young


Water Quality and Quantity III (Fire)

Impacts of Fire on Hydrology and Erosion in Steep Mountain Big Sagebrush Communities

            Frederick B. Pierson, Peter R. Robichaud, Kenneth E. Spaeth, Corey A. Moffet

Potential Hydrologic Response to a Prescribed Fire on a Small Mountainous Watershed

Gerald N. Flerchinger, Patrick E. Clark

Fire Disturbance and Nitrogen Deposition Impacts at the Watershed Scale in Southern California

            Thomas Meixner, Mark E. Fenn, Peter M. Wohlgemuth


Water Quality and Quantity IV

Multi-Scale Assessment of the Extent and Effects of Calcium Depletion in Forest Soils of the Upper Delaware River Basin

            Peter Murdoch, Rakesh Minocha

Post-Fire Erosion Control Research on the San Dimas Experimental Forest: Past and Present

            Peter M. Wohlgemuth

Climate Variability, Fire, Vegetation Recovery, and Watershed Hydrology

            Thomas Meixner, Peter M. Wohlgemuth

Historical and On-Going Hydrologic and Sediment Transport Research at Little Granite Creek near Bondurant, Wyoming

Sandra E. Ryan, Mark K. Dixon, Kathleen A. Dwire, William W. Emmett

Quick Response Small Catchment Monitoring Techniques for Comparing Postfire Rehabilitation Treatment Effectiveness

            Peter R. Robichaud, Robert E. Brown

Impacts of Wildfires on Hydrologic Processes in Forest Ecosystems: Two Case Studies

            Gerald J. Gottfried, Daniel G. Neary, Malchus B. Baker, Jr., Peter F.  Ffolliot


Integrated Management

Managing Interdisciplinary Research: Lessons Learned from the EPA-STAR /NSF/USDA Water and Watersheds Research Program

B. Levinson, K.W. Thornton

San Simon Watershed Assessment and Restoration Plan

            Bill Brandau, Rod Wittler, Barron Orr

Research and Management Partnership for Stream Habitat Inventory in the Appalachians

            C. Andrew Dolloff, Craig N. Roghair, John D. Moran, Dawn M. Kirk

Integrated Watershed Management:  A New Paradigm for Natural Resource Management

            Vicente Lopes, J.E. de Steiguer

Pulses: The Importance of Pulsed Physical Events for Louisiana Floodplains and Watershed Management

            J.W. Day, J. Ko, J. Cable, J.N. Day, B. Fry, E. Hyfield, D. Justic, P. Kemp, R. Lane,

            H. Mashriqui, E. Reyes, S. Rick, G. Snedden, E. Swenson, P. Templet, R. Twilley,

            K. Wheelock, B. Wissel

Experimental Watersheds, Nutrient Dynamics and Collaborative Research

            Sherri L. Johnson, Frederick J. Swanson, Kevin McGuire, Julia A. Jones, Mark Harmon


Ecology II

Watershed Analysis of Pulsing Freshwater Events Using Landscape Modeling in Coastal Louisiana

            Enrique Reyes, Robert Lane, John W. Day

Changes in Land Uses, Hydrology and Fish Habitats in an Urban Drainage, Cedar River, Washington

            Robert C. Wissmar, Raymond K. Timm II

Probabilistic Assessment of Wadeable Streams in the Southeastern U.S.

Peter Kalla, James Maudsley

Small Stream Ecosystem Variability in the Sierra Nevada of California

            Carolyn T. Hunsaker, Sean M. Eagan

An Interregional Comparison of Channel Structure and Transient Storage in Streams Draining Harvested

            Brian H. Hill, Frank H. McCormick

Interregional Comparison of Nutrient Uptake Rates in Managed and Old-Growth Watersheds

Frank H. McCormick, Brian H. Hill


Integrating Science with Watershed Decision Making II

An Internet-based Spatial Decision Support System for Rangeland Watershed Management

            Ryan Miller, D. Phillip Guertin, Philip Heilman

Transfer and Application of Simulation Modeling in Important Environmental Problems

            L. J. Lane

The Analytic Hierarchy Process as a  Means for Integrated Watershed Management

J.E. de Steiguer, Jennifer Duberstein, Vicente Lopes

Urban Watershed/Water Body Restoration – The Driving Forces

            Vladimir Novotny, David Clark, Robert J. Griffin

Contingent Valuation and Watershed Management: A Review of Past Uses and Possible Future Applications

Jennifer N. Duberstein, J.E. de Steiguer